As complex as the modern world has become, it seems unlikely that most of what surrounds us is actually the result of the ancient practice of philosophy. Everything from the structure of democratic governments to due process of law, from a physician’s Hippocratic oath to computer software, has its roots in philosophy. Sadly, philosophy as a course of study is disappearing from our nation’s colleges, yet its focus on analytical thinking and problem solving is more vitally important today than ever.

Philosophy is hard to define but easier to recognise, philosophy involves trying to answer profound and difficult questions using rational inquiry rather than empiricism. [2] [3] [4]

Philosophy is the critical study of the most fundamental questions that human beings could ever ask. The number of these questions increases over time and they have been arranged into various but overlapping branches, such as the following.


Metaphysics is The study of existence itself. The questions asked include:-

    • What sorts of things exist?
    • What are those things like?
    • Do some things exist even if we don't experience them?
    • What is the nature of space and time?
    • What is thought and thinking?
    • What is it to be a person?
    • What is it to be conscious?
    • Is there a god?
    • Are there gods?

Metaphysics includes Metaphysical cosmology


Epistemology studies knowledge.

    • Can we know anything at all?
    • If we can then what can we know?
    • How do we come to know what we know?
    • Can we know that there are other minds? How?



    • Is there a difference between morally right and wrong actions (or values, or institutions)? If so, what is that difference?
    • Which actions are right, and which wrong?
    • Do they need to be based on value?
    • Are they divine commands, like Christian morality or is there something else that makes them "just right as in Humanist morality?
    • Is ethical analysis dependent on the situation?
    • Is it relative or absolute?
    • How should I live? How should we live?


Logic is tricky.


Anthropology is The study of humanity. It poses questions like

    • What it is to be human.
    • What is human existence?
    • How far is there a shared human nature? This includes human religion. We can generally see the religions of other cultures are Mythological and unreasonable. We can't always see the religion of our own culture is similarly unreasonable.

Russell the philosopher[]

I(Bertrand Russell) have come to accept facts of sense and the broad truth of science as things which the philosopher should take as data, since, though their truth is not quite certain, it has a higher degree of probability than anything likely to be achieved in philosophical speculation.


Incorporates material adapted from Wikia of Philosophy